Competency-based analysis focuses on the specific knowledge and abilities an employee must have to perform the job.
With competency based, it is less clear and more objective.However, competency-based analysis might be more appropriate for specific, high-level positions.
For example, a competency-based analysis might include the following:
- Able to utilize data analysis tools
- Able to work within teams
You can clearly see the difference between the two. The focus of task-based analyses is the job duties required, while the focus of competency-based analyses is on how a person can apply their skills to perform the job. One is not better than the other but is simply used for different purposes and different types of jobs. For example, a task-based analysis might be used for a receptionist, while a competency-based analysis might be used for a vice president of sales position.
Consider the legal implications, however, of which job analysis is used. Because a competency-based job analysis is more subjective, it might be more difficult to tell whether someone has met the criteria.
Once you have decided if a competency-based or task-based analysis is more appropriate for the job, you can prepare to write the job analysis. Of course, this isn‘t something that should be done alone. Feedback from managers should be taken into consideration to make this task useful in all levels of the organization. Organization is a key component to preparing for your job analysis. For example, will you perform an analysis on all jobs in the organization or just focus on one department? Once you have determined how you will conduct the analysis, a tool to conduct the analysis should be chosen. Most organizations use questionnaires (online or hard copy) to determine the duties of each job title. Some organizations will use face-to-face interviews to perform this task, depending on time constraints and the size of the organization.
A job analysis questionnaire usually includes the following types of questions, obviously depending on the type of industry:
- Employee information such as job title, how long in position, education level, how many years of experience in the industry
- Key tasks and responsibilities
- Decision making and problem solving: this section asks employees to list situations in which problems needed to be solved and the types of decisions made or solutions provided.
- Level of contact with colleagues, managers, outside vendors, and customers
- Physical demands of the job, such as the amount of heavy lifting or ability to see, hear, or walk
- Personal abilities required to do the job—that is, personal characteristics needed to perform well in this position
- Specific skills required to do the job—for example, the ability to run a particular computer program
- Certifications to perform the job
Once all employees (or the ones you have identified) have completed the questionnaire, you can organize the data, which is helpful in creating job descriptions. If there is more than one person.